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11 Nov 2019

What is Vitamin C?

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid or ascorbate, is a vitamin found in several foods and is often sold as a dietary supplement or used in skincare. Vitamin C is an essential nutrient for the repair of tissue and the enzymatic production of certain neurotransmitters. It is also used in skincare due to its anti-ageing benefits, vitamin c is a powerful antioxidant, protecting the skin from free radicals and toxins in the environment, which can lead to the breakdown of collagen, encouraging wrinkles and skin laxity.

Free radicals are essentially molecules of singular oxygen which can cause a lot of damage to proteins such as collagen and blood ve...

7 Oct 2019

What is Azelaic Acid?

Azelaic acid is a dicarboxylic acid, it is naturally derived from grains, and is a white powder in its natural form. Azelaic acid is produced by a yeast known as Malassezia furfur, which naturally lives on the skins surface. It is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory so works to reduce rosacea and acne prone skin. Alongside this azelaic acid brightens and lightens the skin.

What are the benefits of Azelaic Acid?

  • Unblocks pores and refines the skins surface

  • Evens out skin texture

  • Reduces pigmentation caused from sun damage

  • Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties

How does Azelaic Acid work?

This image displays the effects...

7 Oct 2019

What is Hyaluronic Acid?

Hyaluronic acid or sodium hyaluronate is a humectant, it is a hygroscopic ingredient, meaning that it draws moisture in from its surroundings. Hyaluronic acid can retain over 1,000 times its weight in water within the cells of skin, making it a brilliant moisturiser. The average human body contains 15 grams of hyaluronic acid, one third of this gets synthesised on a daily basis; 50% of the remaining is found in connective tissues throughout our bodies, the other 50% can be found in the skin as hyaluronic acid it is a major component of the extracellular matrix. Our naturally occurring levels of hyaluronic acid decrease with age therefore it...

7 Oct 2019

What is Glutathione?

Glutathione is tripeptide composed of 3 amino acids, cysteine, glutamic acid and glycine; these work together as a powerful antioxidant. Glutathione was originally prescribed as an immune boosting drug; however, doctors noticed the skin brightening and lightening effects and it is now also a popular skincare ingredient to help those with an uneven skin tone due to sun damage. Glutathione neutralizes free radicals, boosts the immune system and reduces pigmentation.

What are the benefits of Glutathione?

  • Brightens and evens skin tone

  • Maintains skin's moisture level

  • Helps maintain skin's elasticity

  • Breaks down melanin, reducing pig...

26 Sep 2019

What is Retinol?

Retinol is a type of vitamin A that naturally occurs in the skin, regarded the powerhouse of skincare ingredients. Retinol and retina are very different, but are both classed at retinoids; retinol is an over the counter vitamin A, retina is a prescription only retinoid used to treat more severe acne, arguably 2 of the most popular retina products are Tretinoin and Adapalene. Over the counter retinol products range from 0.1% to 1% retinol, although not all products disclose their concentration sometimes making it difficult to tell the potency.

Once retinol is absorbed and converted to retinoic acid, collagen, elastin and hyaluronic acid levels increa...

26 Sep 2019

What is Salicylic Acid?

Salicylic acid is a beta hydroxy acid (BHA), phenolic compound, meaning that the hydroxy part of the molecule is separated from the acid part by two carbon atoms, instead of one (AHA). It is derived from willow bark, and belongs to the salicylates. Salicylic acid is oil-soluble, therefore it works on and below the skin’s surface, penetrating through the skin’s lipid layers with ease.

What are the benefits?

  • Unclogs blocked pore, dissolving blackheads and whiteheads

  • Anti-inflammatory, reduces redness in existing acne

  • Removes excess oil, preventing further breakouts

How does it work?

Salicylic acid unclogs block pores by breaking a...

26 Sep 2019

What is Autophagy?

Autophagy is the body’s way of removing dead or damaged cells, in order to regenerate healthier, newer cells. ‘Auto’ means self and ‘phage’ means eat, so autophagy literally means ‘self-eating’. It’s like pressing a reset button for your body and skin, the autophagy process recycles parts of dysfunctional cells for cellular repair and removes the rest. Alongside this autophagy promotes cellular survival and adaptation as a response to various stressors and toxins accumulated in our cells. Dr Yoshinori Oshumi received a Nobel Peace Prize in 2016 for his work on autophagy and related genes.

How does it benefit the skin?

Maintaining autophagy flux del...

26 Sep 2019

What is Alpha Arbutin?

Alpha-arbutin is a synthetic and functional active ingredient for skin lightening. It is a biosynthetic ingredient, derived from bearberry, bearberry extract is broken down to produce hydroquinone, hydroquinone and dextrin (a sugar) reacts with a glycosylating enzyme to produce alpha arbutin. Alpha arbutin is considered a safer, but not less effective than hydroquinone, even at similar or greater concentrations!

What are the benefits?

  • Lightens skin

  • Evens skin tone

  • Prevents melanin formation

  • Reverses existing pigmentation such as freckles, sun damage, age spots or liver spots

How does it work?

Alpha arbutin blocks melanin syn...

26 Sep 2019

What is Lactic Acid?

Lactic acid is part of the Alpha Hydroxy Acids (AHAs) group, it is a naturally occurring carboxylic acid found in many foods. It’s a chemical exfoliant which breaks down and dissolves the structure of dead skin cells without causing sensitivity.  

What are the benefits?

  • Increases the ceramides in the skin’s epidermis

  • Increases water retention

  • Prevents congestion

  • Improves pigmentation

How does it work?

When applied topically lactic acid interferes with the bonds between the cells on the epidermis, breaking off dead, rough skin cell, this therefore promotes cell turnover and the growth of healthy, younger cells, resulting in a m...

25 Sep 2019

What is Acetyl Hexapeptide-8?

Commonly referred to as ‘Botox in a jar’, acetyl hexapeptide-8 is a peptide compound used to reduce the appearance of fine lines causes by repeated facial expressions, such as crow’s feet, glabellar lines or nasolabial lines. Acetyl hexapeptide-8 is also often referred to by its commercial name Argireline, which refers to both acetyl hexapeptide-8 or acetyl hexapeptide-3.

Acetyl hexapeptide-8 promotes the skin’s natural production of type 1 collagen, the crucial protein which forms large, eosinophilic fibres to rebuild muscles, reducing fine lines and wrinkles. This ingredient blocks signals from the nerves to the muscles, these muscles...

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